In situ determination of the chloride content of Portland cement concrete in bridge decks feasibility study

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Published by Dept. of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, Offices of Research and Development, for sale by the National Technical Information Service in Washington, Springfield, Va .

Written in English

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  • Bridges, Concrete -- Floors -- Testing.

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StatementJ. R. Rhodes ... [et al.].
SeriesReport - Federal Highway Administration ; no. FHWA-RD-77-26
ContributionsRhodes, J. R., United States. Federal Highway Administration. Office of Research., United States. Federal Highway Administration. Office of Development.
The Physical Object
Paginationvi, 108 p. :
Number of Pages108
ID Numbers
Open LibraryOL15218487M

Download In situ determination of the chloride content of Portland cement concrete in bridge decks

Get this from a library. In situ determination of the chloride content of portland cement concrete bridge decks. [United States. Federal Highway Administration. Materials Division.;] -- The objective of this two-phase program is to develop an instrument and test procedure for rapid, local, in situ determination of chloride content in PCC bridge decks or other reinforced concrete.

Get this from a library. In situ determination of the chloride content of portland cement concrete in bridge decks: feasibility study: interim report: [prepared for Federal Highway Administration, Offices of Research and Development]. [J R Rhodes; United States.

Federal Highway Administration. Offices of Research and Development.;] -- The objective of this two-phase program is to develop a. determination of chloride in hardened portland cement paste, mortar, and concrete.

the severe distress observed in many portland cement concrete pavements and bridge decks exposed to sea water or to deicing salts has resulted in the need for a simple and accurate method for determining chloride content in hardened by: Aspdin called the creation Portland cement since it resembles the stone quarried from the Isle of Portland.

The hardening process of the cement and concrete mixture can be accelerated by the addition of various compounds including chlorides, carbonates, silicates, and flu silicates.

Calcium chloride (CaCl2) is the most commonly used accelerant. For the field determination of chloride in portland cement concrete (PCC), Rhodes et al. (7) developed a neutron gamma ray method capable of providing a rapid and nondestructive survey of total chloride content of concrete bridge deck at the depth of.

But in concrete with high cement content, low porosity and/or high alumina percentages, the two quantities become more nearly comparable. This is also true for water with initially low chloride content: in these latter conditions, the binding contribution from Friedel's salt becomes much more significant when evaluating a retardation scenario.

chloride content at the reinforcing-bar level in portland cement concrete bridge decks has been developed to field prototype stage end tested on a range of concrete specimen• and on five bridge decks in Texas. The in•trument ust11 tho technique of neutron-induced gammaray sper:tromctry with a µg callfornium sealed neutron source.

The results of the evaluation indicate that cracking in monolithic bridge decks increases with increasing values of concrete slump, percent of concrete volume occupied by water and cement, water. Durability of Concrete Bridge Decks.

TRB, Syn­ thesis of Highway Pract 2. J.R. Rhodes and others. In Situ Determination of the Chloride Content of Portland Cement Con­ crete in Bridge Decks: Feasibility Study. FHWA, Interim Rept. FHWA-RD, 3. J.R. Rhodes and others.

In Situ Determination. This paper highlights the importance of chloride content measuring, and also summarizes the state of the art of non-destructive and in situ techniques for measuring chloride content into concrete.

The chloride attack on concrete is worse in hot climates. The permeability of concrete and binding capacity of chloride affect the chloride attack.

Type of cement and cement content of concrete also affect the chloride attack. It is necessary to check the trends of origin of chlorides (i.e. external source or contaminated sand or aggregates).

The determination of chloride ion content in concrete has been performed as a standard procedure by the Texas State Department of Highways and Public Transportation for a number of years. Water-soluble chlorides from deicing salt or natural sources have been found to penetrate concrete.

Table 2. Maximum Chloride Ion Content of Concrete (ACI ) Maximum Type of Member Cl-* Prestressed concrete Reinforced concrete exposed to chloride in service Reinforced concrete that will be dry or protected from moisture in service Other reinforced concrete construction *Water-soluble chloride, percent by weight of cement.

Chloride-induced corrosion is a major cause of degradation of reinforced concrete infrastructure. While the binding of chloride ions (Cl⁻) by cementitious phases is known to delay corrosion.

ride analysis in concrete - Part I: Analysis of total chloride con-tent’, Mater. Struct() () [2] Tritthart, J. and Cavlek, K., ‘Determination of total and free chloride in cement paste and concrete’, Proceedings of the 2nd International RILEM Workshop on Testing and Modelling the Chloride Ingress into Concrete.

The concrete cavity is treated as a long cylinder of length L and a radius r c centered in a cylindrical specimen also of length L (thus, chloride transport beneath the cavity is ignored for simplicity) and radius r e ≫ r c (see Fig.

1).The chloride concentration at r = r e is assumed to be unaffected by leaching within the time frame of the experiment.

Weiwei Lin, Teruhiko Yoda, in Bridge Engineering, Waterproofing System. Bridge decks are vulnerable, subject to attack by water and chloride that can lead to deterioration and issues with longevity and durability of the bridge decks.

The installation of an effective waterproofing membrane is therefore an essential part of bridge deck system in addition to the drainage system. to % by weight of concrete – about 2 to 4 lbs/yd3. Chloride limits are expressed on the basis of the weight of portland cement. These threshold chloride values can be approximated to about to % by weight of cement (assuming approximately lb/yd3 of portland cement in concrete).

Use of corrosion inhibiting. In Situ Determination of the Chloride Content of Portland Cement Concrete Bridge Decks FHW/RD/ Springfield, VA, National Technical Information Service, Google Scholar. Despite the wealth of information available on the strength, shrinkage, and hydration process of shrinkage-compensating cement concretes, very limited studies have been devoted to the investigation of their transport properties ().Among the existing studies, Battaglia [] examined the concrete permeability by performing the rapid chloride penetration test (RCPT), according to.

Portland cement and asphalt concretes / ; Basic concrete construction practices / Portland Cement Association; Recycling Portland cement concrete [microform] In situ determination of the chloride content of Portland cement concrete in bridge decks: feasibility Making good concrete / Cement & Concrete Association of Australia.

In situ determination of the chloride content of portland cement concrete bridge decks / prepared for Federal Highway Administration, Offices of Research & Development Materials Division.

By United States. Federal Highway Administration. Materials Division. Abstract. Mode of access: Internet. the inspection of concrete structures. Training Course Series Nos. 3 and 10 cover the inspection of concrete using the relevant NDT method; however, coverage is brief and does not present the whole range of NDT methods used for the NDT of concrete.

Concrete has become a very common construction material in most IAEA Member States and problems. Chloride Content Limit in Concrete Structures. The chloride content limit is the amount of chloride that must be present in concrete along with oxygen and moisture in order to facilitate corrosion.

Table-1 below shows theACI code limits of water soluble chlorides. These are limits that must be met when designing the mix proportions.

The maximum concentration level for prevention of corrosion by chloride varies with agency and country. Many specifications limit chloride levels to % to 1% by weight of cement. Others limit it, regardless of cement content, in relationship to concrete volume, for example to.

Chemical, Concrete Chloride Analysis Mass [Weight] of Coating on Aluminum-Coated Iron or Steel Articles Mass [Weight] of Coating on Iron and Steel Articles with Zinc or Zinc-Alloy Coatings Procedure for Chloride Determination Determination of Organic Matter in Soils by Wet Combustion Portland-Cement Content of Hardened Hydraulic-Cement Concrete.

However, the quantity of chloride typically found in old concrete pavement is below critical threshold values. (12) A threshold value of kg/m 3 (4 lbs/yd 3) is recommended by the American Concrete Pavement Association as a threshold to trigger the removal and replacement of concrete bridge decks due to corrosion potential.

(7,13). Calcium Chloride in Portland Cement Concrete: liability whatsoever for the use of or reliance upon: Occidental Tower LBJ Freeway, Suite Dallas, Texas Important: The information presented herein, while not guaranteed, was prepared by technical.

Clear, K. C., "Evaluation of Portland Cement Concrete for Permanent Bridge Deck Repair", Federal Highway Administration, Report FHWA-RD, FebruaryNational Technical Information Services PB/AS.

DEFINITION The total chloride ion content in concrete is the one determined as described in this method and. and often mineral and/or chemic al admixtures. Cement paste and concrete have markedly different properties and behavior, both in the fresh (wet) and hardened states, primarily due to the presence of aggregates in concrete.

Title no. M66 Instantaneous In-Situ Determination of Water-Cement Ratio of Fresh Concrete. Guide Specification for High-Performance Concrete for Bridges ii KEYWORDS: AASHTO, abrasion resistance, admixtures, aggregates, air-entrained concrete, air void analyzer, alkali-carbonate reactivity, alkali-silica reactivity, ASR, ASTM, bridge, cement, cementitious materials, chemical admixtures, chloride ion pene.

In situ determination of the chloride content of portland cement concrete bridge decks / prepared for Federal Highway Administration, Offices of Research & Development Materials Division [] Washington, D.C.

Universal Portland Cement Co., ), by Universal Portland Cement Company. Information Bureau (page images at HathiTrust) In situ determination of the chloride content of portland cement concrete bridge decks / prepared for Federal Highway Administration, Offices of Research & Development Materials Division.

(Washington, D.C. In fact, of the 40 bridge decks, wherein the average total chloride contents in the concrete were measured, 33 (83 percent) decks had chloride content equal to or greater than this threshold level. In addition, in 11(28 percent) decks the chloride content was > kg/m 3 ( lb/yd 3), with the highest content being kg/in 3 ( lb/yd 3).

DETERMINATION OF CHLORIDE CONTENT IN ORGANIC ADDITIVES FOR PORTLAND CEMENT CONCRETE A. SCOPE This method includes two potentiometric procedures used to determine the chloride content of organic compounds used as additives in portland cement concrete.

These compounds are usually. Aggregates are inert granular materials such as sand, gravel, or crushed stone that, along with water and portland cement, are an essential ingredient in concrete.

For a good concrete mix, aggregates need to be clean, hard, strong particles free of absorbed chemicals or coatings of clay and other fine materials that could cause the. Reinforced concrete (RC) (also called reinforced cement concrete or RCC) is a composite material in which concrete's relatively low tensile strength and ductility are counteracted by the inclusion of reinforcement having higher tensile strength or ductility.

The reinforcement is usually, though not necessarily, steel reinforcing bars and is usually embedded passively in the concrete before the. Portland cement reacts with sodium chloride to form chloroaluminates or Friedel’s salt, thus immobilizing the chloride and reducing the free chloride ions available to depassivate the steel.

The results of a year long-term exposure of plain and reinforced concrete beams in a tidal. tion of the solution for the determination of other constituents. There may also be a gain in accuracy. Although the present study of the effect of ammonium chloride on the determination of silica has been limited to the analysis of portland cement, there appears to be no reason why its use cannot.

Here corrosion formation is limited by the slow episodic diffusion of water, chloride ions and oxygen to the steel-cement interface from the bridge deck surface. As discussed earlier, iron oxides require more volume than the metallic iron precursors and the surrounding concrete medium has little flexibility.

For stages where radial cracking is. Chemical analysis of concrete can provide extremely useful information regarding the causes of failure of concrete.

The tests most frequently carried out chemical tests on concrete structures are: Depth of carbonation Chloride content Cement content Sulphate content Type of cement Alkali content Carbonation Test on Concrete Structures This test is carried out to determine the […].laboratory. Chloride content of each sample is determined using the RCT.

The profile obtained is shown in the right figure. An apparent chloride diffusion coefficient of 29 mm2/y is estimated by fitting the solution Fick’s Second Law of Diffusion in accordance with ASTM C .The methods are updated and expanded revisions of the earlier procedure developed by FHWA and contained in report FHWA-RD, "Determination of Chloride in Hardened Portland Cement Paste, Mortar and Concrete" by H.

A. Berman and report FHWA-RD, "Evaluation of Portland Cement Concrete for Permanent Bridge Deck Repair.".

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